This timeline is very much a work in progress, with notes I’ve collected over time. I’ll remove this disclaimer when I’m happier with the accuracy of the content.
- Eudo becomes Duke of Aquitaine – the actual date is uncertain, but no one else is mentioned.
- Death of Cunipert of Lombardy, and the start of much dynastic bloodshed.
- Raginpert, the duke of Turin, takes the Lombard throne. He drowns Liutpert, the young son of Cunipert.
- Brittany had been nominally under the control of the Franks since the death of King Clovis. The Breton leaders were called counts, not kings. The Bretons began raiding across the river Vilaine into the pagi of Rennes and Nantes, as recorded by Gregory of Tours.
- Drogo son of Pepin dies, age 38, circumstances unknown, and leaves the duchy of Champagne to his second son Arnulf. First son Hugh had entered a monastery.
- Arabs cross the Straight of Gibralter.
- Visigothic army under King Roderick defeated on the Rio Barbate by the forces of Umayyad general Tariq Ibn Ziyad (a manumitted slave). End of Christian rule in his area of Spain.
- Ansprand returns from Bavaria and seizes the throne of Lombardy from Raginpert. Ansprand soon dies, and his son Liutprand takes the throne and rules for the next thirty years.
- Pepin/Plectrude’s son Grimoald, mayor of Nuestria (named mayor in 695; married daughter of Radbod), assassinated by a Rangar, in the employ of Radbod. Plectrude makes Pepin call Grimoald’s son Theudoald, age eight, as the heir, not Martel or Childebrand.
- Pepin the Younger, the Short, le bref, the III, son of Martel, born in Jupille, close to Liege. Martel is 28.
- Charles Martel made ‘mayor of the palace,’ ruler of Francia.
- C. Martel must fight Radbod, after Radbod forces Willibrord and his monks to flee; advances as far as Cologne.
- Dec 14/16: Pepin II of Herstal, “Duke and Prince of the Franks,” dies at age of 79/80. Wife Plectrude still lives, and is regent for her grandson Theudoald. To protect her claim she imprisons Martel (Pepin’s bastard).
- Ragenfrid made mayor of Neustria by Dagobert III, in opposition to Theudoald, Pepin’s heir (could be late 714 or early 715).
- Start of Frankish Civil War; Martel led the Austrasians.
- Eudo declares his independence in the civil war.
- Eudo leads Aquitanians and Franks against the Muslims at Toulouse.
- Sept 26, battle of Compiegne, where Ragenfrid defeats Theudoald for the first time. Theudoald flees to Cologne with Plectrude.
- Charles either escapes or is let out of prison.
- Plan for erection of bishoprics in Bavaria.
- Austrasia is fought over between Charles on the one hand, and Plectrude (grandmother of Theudoald).
- Boniface resigns as Abbot of the Nhutscelle monastery at Winchester, briefly goes to Frisia as a missionary, but is frustrated by the war between Martel and Radbod.
- Chilperic II and Ragenfrid attack Austrasia – ally with Radbod of Frisia, who is making up for his defeat by Pepin at the battle of Dorestad in 689, 27 years earlier.
- Plectrude lets Martel out of the Cologne prison – her only hope.
- Radbod/Chilperic/Ragenfrid defeat Martel at Cologne, then held by Plectrude. Martel flees to mountains of the Eifel.
- Chilperic/Ragenfrid turn on Plectrude in Cologne.
- Plectrude acknowledges Chilperic as king, gives over the Austrasian treasury, and abandons her son’s (grandson’s?) claim to the mayoralty.
- Charles Martel with Austrasians ambushed Chilperic II at B. of Ambleve, near Malmedy – smashing success, and the start of Charles’ career.
- Arabs besiege Constantinople for the second time.
- Mar 21, Charles returns to Neustria with an army enhanced after the victory at Ambleve. Forced Chilperic and Ragenfrid to fight, and then won the battle of Vincy, near Cambrai.
- Charles chases Chilperic II and Ragenfrid to Paris before turning back to deal with Plectrude and Cologne.
- Plectrude enters a convent and dies before the end of the year.
- On succeeding at Cologne, Charles proclaims Clotaire/Choltar IV king of Austrasia in opposition to Chilperic.
- Charles deposes Rigobert, bishop of Reims, and sends him to Gascony. Replaces him with Milo, prominent son of a powerful Austrasian family. Also bishop of Trier, at some point.
- Eudo fights (called the hostis Vasconorum\, but not really Basques) alongside Chilperic II and Ragenfrid against Martel (perhaps they offered to confirm his self-proclaimed kingship of Aquitaine).%
- Defeat of Chilperic II and Eudo at battle of Soissons; Charles had anticipated the site\, and had a hardened army in place.%
- Ragenfrid flees to Angers\, Chilperic and Eudo flee south of the Loire.%
- Clotaire IV\, Charles’ king in Austrasia\, dies.%
- Eudo offers up Chilperic to Charles – perhaps for the same deal that Chilperic offered Eudo.%
- In exchange for Charles’ Mayoralty over all the Franks\, Chilperic II becomes king over all the Franks.%
- Wynfrith travels to Rome\, is consecrated as a missionary and takes a new name\, Boniface.%
- Willibrord almost convinces Radbod to convert. Radbod refused when he was told that he would not be able to find any of his ancestors in heaven after his death\, since he preferred spending eternity in hell with his pagan ancestors than in heaven with strangers. This legend is also told with Willibrord being replaced with Wulfram (or Vulfran)\, a monk and ex-archbishop of Sens. Willibrord returns to Fontenelle.%
- Muslims control most of Spain and Portugal\, and continue to advance north.%
- Christian army defeats Muslims at Battle of Covadonga.%
- Charles moves against the Saxons in the latter part of this year.
- Chilperic II raised as king of all Franks – obviously at Charles’ behest.%
- The Muslims\, under Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani the governor-general of al-Andalus\, overrun Septimania.%
- Radbod\, king of Frisia\, dies.%
- Boniface returns to Frisia\, assisting Archbishop Willibrord in the demolition of pagan shrines and the building of churches.%
- Charles uses Wilibrord as a tool against the Saxons.
- Al-Samh set up his capital at Narbonne\, which the Muslims called Arbūna. He offered the still largely Arian inhabitants generous terms. Al-Samh quickly pacified the other cities. With Narbonne and its important port secure (for the Arab mariners were masters now of the Western Mediterranean)\, he swiftly subdued the largely unresisting cities\, still controlled by their Visigoth counts: taking Alet and Béziers\, Agde\, Lodève\, Maguelonne and Nîmes.%
- Bertrada of Laon born (Bertrada with the big feet). Daughter of Caribert of Laon and Bertrade of Cologne. Later marries Pippin III and is mother to Charlemagne.%
- Chilperic II dies; Charles soon appoints Theuderic IV\, still a minor.
- Feb 13\, Chilperic II dies.%
- June 9\, Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani\, governor (wali) of Al-Andalus\, is reinforced and ready to lay siege to Toulouse\, a possession that would open up Aquitaine to him on the same terms as Septimania. But his plans were overthrown in the disastrous Battle of Toulouse\, with immense losses\, in which al-Samh was so seriously wounded that he soon died at Narbonne. Eudo left for three months to get reinforcements (Martel refused)\, and when he returned the Moors had gotten careless\, and Eudo could encircle the besiegers.%
- Al-Samh dies; Anbasa ibn Suhaym Al-Kalbi becomes wali of Al-Andalus.%
- Eudo tells the pope he killed 375k Saracen in one day.%
- Pope sends gifts to Eudo as Champion of Christianity.%
- Martel organizes a standing guard.%
- Theuderic IV\, age eight or nine\, takes office. Charles keeps him in custody\, first in Chelles Abbey\, then in Château-Thierry.%
- Boniface moves southeast into Hesse and Thuringia.
- Eudo marries his daughter Lampegia to Uthman ibn Naissa (Mannuza\, a Berber)\, deputy governor of Catalonia (or ruler of Cerdanya\, which is part of Catalonia). Mannuza had heard of the oppression of the Berbers in N. Africa.%
- Boniface ordained missionary Bishop by Pope Gregory II.%
- 720’s: Arab forces soundly based in Narbonne and easily resupplied by sea\, strike eastwards.
- With the blessing of C. Martel\, Boniface returns to Hesse. He chops down the oak sacred to Donar and used it to build a small chapel dedicated to the Apostle Peter.%
- Charles completes subjugation of Bavaria.
- Rotrude/Chrotrude\, wife of Martel and mother of Pepin\, dies.%
- Ragenfrid leaves the county of Anjou and mounts one last rebellion against Charles\, but fails. Ragenfrid gives sons as hostages and goes back to Anjou. Again Charles does not kill his opponents. End of the civil wars.%
- Arabs conquer Carcassonne and Nimes.
- Arab raid/sack Autun.%
- Charles invades Bavaria\, deposes and kills the duke and installs Hugobert.%
- Boniface moves into East Franconia (part of Thuringia)\, and laid the foundations for a bishopric at Wurzburg. His disciple Burchard later became the first bishop there.%
- Charles brings Pilitrude\, widow of former duke\, and her daughter Swanahild back from Bavaria.
- Grifo born\, son of C. Martel and his second wife Swanahild. His half-brothers Pippin and Carlomon considered him illegitimate.%
- Emperor Leo III initiates the Iconoclast Controversy.
- Princess Suanehild confirmed as Charles’ mistress.%
- Lombard king Liutprand grants the Donation of Sutri to pope Gregory II.
- Lombards\, assisted by Italo-Roman rebels (because they favored the iconoclast policy of Emperor Leo III\, which the Pope opposed?)\, almost destroy the Exarchate of Ravenna.%
- Abdul Rahman becomes governor of Al-Andalus
- Ragenfrid dies – prompts Charles to move on Bourges.%
- Charles breaks the treaty with Eudo\, crosses the Loire\, and sacks/takes Bourges. This draws Eudo north\, where he doesn’t win\, but at least Charles goes back to Neustria.%
- Charles raids twice\, with much booty taken.%
- Munnuza is attacked by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi\, who considered Munnuza a traitor. Munnuza is killed/kills himself and Eudo’s daughter Lampegia is taken prisoner and sent to a Damascus.%
- Boniface becomes Archbishop from Gregory III.
- From Navarre Abdul Rahman heads into Vasconia and sacks Auch\, then heads to Bordeaux; Eudo defeated in battle of the R. Garonne\, then runs to Martel for help (first vassalage reported?).%
- Muslims loot the monasteries\, which slows them down and gives Eudo and Charles time to organize.%
- Oct 10: Islamic invasion force made up primarily of Berber and Arab cavalry under Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi encounters Martel and his veteran Frankish army between Tours and Poitiers and is defeated. Abd er-Rahman is killed.%
- Martel takes the territory around Toulouse\, and directs his attention to Narbonne.
- Arabs\, in retreat from Poitiers\, do not sack monastery of Gueret where Pardulfus lives – clearly a result of his prayers.%
- Martel moves into Burgundy\, taking church property as he needs it.
- Pepin the Short marries ???
- Eudo abdicates/dies (he must be 70).%
- Frankish conquest of Frisia.%
- Lombard king Liutprand falls gravely ill. His nephew Hildeprand is elevated to co-kingship.
- Hunald of Aquitaine (or Chunold\, Hunold\, Hunaud) succeeds his father Eudo the Great.%
- Hugobert dies\, duke of Bavaria installed by Charles in 725.%
- Charles brings Odilo\, distant relative of Swanahild\, to Bavaria and makes him duke.%
- Charles moves into Provence\, after taking Burgundy in 733; he installs his men in the towns that he takes (what was that like?).
- Hunald refuses to recognize Charles’ authority\, but then Charles marches south of the Loire\, seizing Blaye and Bordeaux\, but eventually allows Hunald to retain Aquitaine on condition that he promise fidelity.%
- Hunald is duke\, and his brother Remistanius is senior warlord?
- Martel destroy Arles\, Avignon\, and Nimes.%
- Martel unsuccessfully attacks Narbonne\, which was defended by its Goths\, and Jews under the command of its governor Yusuf\, ‘Abd er-Rahman’s heir.%
- Town of Vienne sacked by Moslems?%
- Martel crushes the relief force at the River Berre; leaves Narbonne isolated.%
- Theuderic IV dies – no other Merovingian successor until Childeric III in 741.%
- Boniface makes third trip to Rome.%
- Pepin\, then 27\, (not Karloman) sent to K. Liutprand for adoption\, to cement alliance between them\, instead of a marriage. Intended to ‘outflank’ the Bavarians.%
- Saint Pardulfus/Pardulf dies\, hearing the horns of Eudo calling him to heaven.
- Alphaida born to Pepin the Short.%
- Martel invades Saxony.
- Pope Gregory III twice appeals to Charles\, sending the keys to St. Peter’s tomb and the links from his chains\, for help against Lombard king Liutprand. Charles declines\, favoring his alliance with Liutprand.%
- Duke Odilo of Bavaria invites Boniface to establish bishoprics in Bavaria.%
- Charles asks Liutprand’s help to meet the Arabs in Provence; Liutprand comes with an army.
- Death of Eudo? (vita Pardulfi mentions his popularity).%
- Odilio\, duke of Bavaria\, is driven out and comes to Charles’ court; become lover of Martel’s daughter Chiltrude.%
- Pepin marries Bertrada\, his second cousin (but not canonically recognized). Her father\, Charibert\, was the son of Pepin II’s brother\, Martin of Laon.%
- Martel leaves kingdom to Carloman\, Pepin\, Grifo; Swanahild has to persuade him to give Grifo ‘the middle lands.’%
- Bavaria and Aquitaine not included in divisions.
- Pope Gregory III asks C. Martel for help against the Lombards\, but he declines.%
- Martel gives villa of Clichy (a favorite Merovingian residence) to St. Denis.%
- Boniface establishes bishopric for northern Bavaria at Eichstat\, with churches at Passsau\, Regensburg\, Salzburg\, Freising\, and Neuberg-Staffelsee. He established a bishopric for Hesse\, near Frizlar.%
- Oct 22: Martel dies at Oise/Quierzy; had been Mayor for 23 years. Buried at St. Denis.%
- Carloman named Mayor and Duke of Franks (Austrasia\, Alemannia\, Thuringia); ‘raised up’ like a king.%
- Pepin\, aged 27\, named Mayor and Duke of Franks (Neustria\, Burgundy\, Provence); ‘sent out to.’%
- Zachary becomes Pope.%
- Chiltrude goes to Odilo in Bavaria and marries\, at Swanahild’s advice; her half-brothers are displeased.%
- Theudeold (last seen 714) killed; had he been contending for power?%
- Grifo\, aged 15\, imprisoned by Pepin and Carloman.%
- Swanahild sent to convent of Chelles.%
- Dukes of Aquitaine\, Bavaria\, and Alamannia form a loose alliance against the new princes.%
- Hunald of Aquitaine revolts\, crosses the Loire\, and burns Chartres. Pepin and Carloman fight back.
- Boniface establishes bishoprics for northern Thuringia at Erfurt\, Buraburg\, and for east Franconia at Wurzburg.%
- Carloman and Pepin attack Hunald: cross the Loire at Orleans\, set fire to the outskirts of Bourges\, and finally took and razed the castra at Loches. Carloman also lays waste to Alamannia.%
- Brothers then meet at Vieux-Poitiers to divide Grifo’s lands between them.
- Carloman (and Pepin?) raises Childeric III to the throne.%
- Council of Estinnes; partial purpose is to retain land for use of the army – currently fighting everywhere.%
- Brothers fight b. of r. Lech\, against Odilo and combined force of Bavarians\, Alemans\, Saxons\, and Slavs; victorius\, despite heavy losses.%
- Rigobert\, whom Charles deposed as bishop of Rheims in 717\, dies at Gernicourt\, where he had been living as a hermit.%
- Hunald crosses Loire in autumn (knowing brothers were in the east) to Chartres\, and burns church of St. Mary\, at Odilo’s urging – trying to overwhelm the brothers.
- Pepin marries Bertrada of Laon.%
- Adelbert deposed by Boniface\, but remains at court as the children’s unofficial tutor.%
- March\, Milo deposed as archbishop of Treves (Trier?) by Boniface\, at the Synod of Soissons; remained as bishop of Rheims? Mentioned by Zacharias in 751…%
- Sturm\, disciple of Boniface\, establishes monastery at Fulda\, Thuringia. Some years later Sturm goes to Rome to learn the ways of monastic rule.%
- Lombard king Liutprand dies\, the greatest king of the Lombards. His nephew Hildeprand (the Useless) succeeds him\, but is soon supplanted by duke Ratchis of Friuli.
- At Pepin’s suggestion Boniface upgrades the bishoprics of Reims\, Sens and Rouen to archiepiscopal level.%
- Brothers fight in the east: C. fights Saxons; P defeats Aleman leader Theudebald in the Alps\, then moves north to assist in the Saxon fight.
- Brothers cross the Loire to fight Hunald.%
- Hunald of Aquitaine begs for peace\, swears oath of obediance\, gives hostages\, pays his taxes\, and then retires in humilation to a monastery on the Ile-de-Re.%
- Waifer of Aquitaine succeeds his father Hunald.%
- Boniface was supposed to become archbishop of Cologne\, but instead becomes the bishop of Mainz in 746.
- Alemans defeated by Carloman at “Blood Court of Cannstatt”; Frankish conquest of Alemannia.%
- Next generation sees widespread distribution of Aleman property to Frankish nobles; proof of decimation of Allemanic nobility.
- Government of the Septimania region (and the Upper Mark\, from the Pyrénées to the river Ebro) is given to Aumar ben Aumar.%
- Carloman leaves for Rome: probably expected son Drogo to succeed him as Mayor of eastern regions.%
- Grifo escapes\, or…%
- BB says Pepin freed him and gave him the old dukedom\, capital at le Mans\, composed of 12 counties. Could be used as a march against Brittany\, or as a bulwark for or against Aquitaine.%
- But Grifo doesn’t want to be a servant\, flees to TheEudoric in Eastphalia.%
- Pepin puts down Grifo’s revolt; Grifo flees to Odilo of Bavaria (married to Pepin’s sister Hiltrude).%
- Pope Zacharias sends Carloman to Monte Cassino before C. can do anything to help Drogo.%
- Pepin writes to Pope Zachary\, asking who should be king\, the person with the title of King\, or the person who makes the decisions as King. Zachary takes two years to answer?
- January 18: Bavarian Duke Odilo dies.%
- April 2: Charlemagne is born to Pepin and Bertrada of Laon\, but illegitimate\, as they weren’t married.%
- Pepin grants Grifo twelve Neustrian counties\, to be held as a duchy\, based in Le Mans (capital of Maine\, near Brittany). Grifo leaves after a few months\, heading for Aquitaine (or Waifar and Gascony) (BB says 12 duchies granted after Carloman left\, and then Grifo headed for Bavaria).%
- Drogo probably acting as Mayor of Austrasia\, according to a Boniface letter.%
- Grifo arrives in Bavaria late in the year\, tries to take the duchy. Pippin invades Bavaria and installs Tassilo (infant son of Odilio) III as duke.
- Aistulf becomes king of Lombards when his brother Ratchis is forced to enter Monte Cassino.
- Pepin III and Bertrada finally marry.
- Pepin goes to Maine and beyond in a show of strength after the debacle – decides that the Breton March need a firmer Grifo.
- Pepin starts to move against Drogo, and finally succeeds around 753.
- Pepin sends biship Burchard of Wurzburg and Fulrad the abbot of St. Denis to ask Pope Zacharias to ask who should be king.
- Pope Zacharias says the man with the actual power should be king, not the figurehead, and sanctions Frankish change of dynasty.
- Pepin rampages through Brittany to halt the Breton raids, in particular sacking Vannes. The churches and monasteries (Saint Denis, Prum, Saint Serge, Angers, Marmoutiers, Reims) had been expanding their ownership across the border region. Perhaps Pippin establishes the Breton March after his sweep. It is at this time that the charter of Saint-Calais was first drafted.
- Pepin deposes Childeric III, and has his long hair cut.
- Pepin declares himself king while in Soissons (sometime between Nov 751 and Jan 752).%
- Carloman born\, son of Pepin and Bertrada of Laon.%
- Aistulf\, king of Lombards\, captures Ravenna\, former capital of the Byzantine exarchate\, executes Eutychius\, the last exarch\, and began to put pressure on Rome. Claim a capitation tax.%
- Pope Zachary places Fulda under the direct control of Rome\, instead of local episcopal jurisdiction\, at Boniface’s request.%
- Nov 4: Zacharias condemns Milo\, enjoins Boniface to continue to preach against his practices.%
- November – January 752: Pepin crowned and anointed King at Soissons by Boniface\, Archbishop of Mainz\, with Zachary’s sanction; how did Pepin explain the lack of “royal” blood?
- March 1: Pepin signs diploma resolving issue about an estate in Maine claimed by Saint-Denis. “The spread of ecclesiastical landowning went hand in hand with the affirmation of Carolingian power in the Breton border area.”%
- March 14/22: Pope Zachary dies\, buried in St. Peter’s Basilica. He is succeeded by a Stephen\, who dies three days later\, before being consecrated.%
- Pope Stephen II consecrated\, to 757; Stephen I dies before being consecrated%
- April 25: A charter signed at Herstal takes Saint Calais (near Le Mans\, eastern Brittany) into royal lordship. The beneficiary\, Abbot Sigibald\, had renounced the lordship of the bishop of Le Mans and had placed himself and his monastery under Pippin’s protection when Pippin attacked Bishop Gauciolenus and his brother Charivius. The Memoriale tells how Pippin ravaged Maine when Gauciolenus and Charivius locked the gates of Le Mans in his face. They did this ‘when Pippin was in the territory of Le Mans\, and was crossing the region on his return from persecuting his enemies.’%
- Childeric III and his son Theuderic placed in the monastery of Saint-Bertin. Or perhaps he went to Saint-Omer and Theuderic went to Saint Wandrille.%
- Stephen II turns to Pippin for help with the Lombards\, since Byzantium won’t help him.%
- Gothic counts of Nimes\, Melguelh\, Agde and Beziers refuse allegiance to the emir at Cordoba and declare their loyalty to Martel (the count of Nimes\, Ansemund\, had some authority over the remaining counts).%
- The Gothic counts of Nîmes\, Melguelh\, Agde and Béziers refused allegiance to the emir at Córdoba and declared their loyalty to the Frankish king. The count of Nîmes\, Ansemund\, had some authority over the remaining counts. The Gothic counts and the Franks then began to besiege Narbonne\, where Miló was probably the count (as successor of the count Gilbert)\, but Narbonne resisted.
- Grifo killed at battle of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne\, along with two of Pepin’s regional leaders.%
- Pepin III subdues Britanny.%
- Pepin sends Abbot of St. Denis to pope to ask about becoming king?%
- Pepin campaigning in Saxony\, then heads straight for Ponthion to meet Stephen II. Learns of Grifo’s death along the way.%
- November: Stephen II meets Pepin at Quiercy-sur-Loire\, and brings the ‘Donation of Constantine.’ Pippin promises in writing to enlarge the ‘Papal States’ (Donation of Pepin).%
- Aistulf conquors Exarchate of Ravenna\, main Byzantine seat in Italy.
- Jan 6\, Pope Stephen II comes to Paris (since Byzantium won’t help him)(He is met and escorted by eleven (six???)-year-old Charles). He reconsecrates Pippin as king in a lavish ceremony at Saint Denis Basilica. Pippin becomes ordained protector of the church (Patrician of the Romans). Pippin’s sons Charles and Carlomon are also anointed. Invasions of Lombardy soon follow.%
- First Donation of Pepin.%
- An anti-Frank reaction in Septimania\, led by Ermeniard\, killed Ansemund\, but the uprising is without success.%
- Radulf designated new count by the Frankish court.%
- June 5: Boniface (aged 81!) martyred in eastern Frisia\, along with 52 companions. He is buried at Fulda.%
- July 28: Pope Stephen II annoints Pepin\, Carloman\, and Charles.
- Abd al-Rahman ben Uqba replaces Aumar ben Aumar.%
- Invasion of Lombardy?%
- Hunald of Aquitaine stoned to death in Lombardy.%
- Carloman dies in the company of Bertrada.
- Franks again invade Italy and conquer the Lombards. Pepin places the Donation of Pepin on the tomb of St. Peter. The gift included Lombard conquests in the Romagna and in the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento\, and the Pentapolis in the Marche (the ‘five cities’ of Rimini\, Ancona\, Fano\, Pesaro\, and Senigallia). For the first time\, the Donation made the pope a temporal ruler over a strip of territory that extended diagonally across Italy from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic.’%
- Desiderius becomes King of Lombards.%
- Alboin becomes duke of Spoleto.%
- Childeric III dies.%
- Second Donation of Pepin.
- Gisela\, daughter of Pepin and Bertrada of Laon (and C’s sister) is born.%
- Aistulf\, king of Lombards\, dies while hunting.%
- Tassilo of Bavaria swears fidelity to Pippin at Compiegne.%
- April 27: Pope Stephen II dies.
- Pepin the Younger besieges Narbonne\, which capitulates.%
- Formally annexes Aquitaine.%
- County granted to Miló (Gothic count in Muslim times).
- Waifer (grandson of Eudo the Great) of Aquitaine is told to give up Frankish refugees and ‘stolen’ church lands. He rebels: from Waifar’s point of view\, the Franks had granted Aquitanian land to purchase loyalty\, so he took it back. Pepin marches against him\, despoiling the lands of Berry and Auvergne.%
- Object is to capture the fortified places. Bourges had two garrisons\, one permanent (Gascons with families)\, one temporary (homines). Gascons serving in Thouars in northern Aquitaine.%
- Franks take the region of Roussillon.%
- Bourbon fortified with homines Waiofarii.%
- Once Waifer pays homage\, Pepin leaves to deal with other things.
- First attacks in Aquitaine.%
- Waifer of Aquitaine “rebels” a second time in two years.%
- Counts loyal to Waifar burn Burgundy\, and again Pepin marches south.%
- The Romani of Orleans oppose Pepin – the same force as from Merovingian times.%
- Waifar calls on Count Chunibert of Bourges and Count Blandinus of the Auvergne to join him in an attack on Chalons. Also reinforced with other levies. Did not include Gascons (not liked in Chalons?).%
- Pepin captures Bourbon\, Chantelle\, and Clermont.%
- Secures other places by treaty in the Auvergne.
- Pepin captures Clermont and Bourbon\, and exiles the Basque defenders to northern Neustria.%
- Pepin takes Berry.%
- After an elaborate siege captures Bourges; Makes the Gascons (liberi) swear allegience to him\, but not the homines; Immediately begins rebuilding walls of Bourges; Assigns comites to guard the city; Comites replaced by Chunibert as count of the city\, after Chunibert swears allegiance.%
- Captures fortress of Thouars.%
- Waifar’s cousin comes Count Mantio\, reinforced with Gascons\, ambush a Carolingian force outside of Narbonne. Ambush sprung\, but Mantio killed; Gascons fled on foot\, and the Franks took their horses as booty.%
- Duke Tassilo III of Bavaria revolts\, drawing Pippin from Aquitaine.
- Pepin increases the pressure\, capturing Poitiers\, Limoges\, Angouleme – war is heating up.
- Count Chilping of the Auvergne leads force against Pepin.%
- The same force as from Merovingian times.%
- Reinforces his levy with the Gascons from Clermont.
- Central Aquitaine defeated.%
- Waifar leads a large force\, including a large force of Gascons\, against Pepin.%
- Pepin gives Aquitanian magnate (and Waifar’s uncle) Remistanius gold\, silver\, costly cloths\, horses\, and arms; Made him the administrator of half of Bourges\, to the river Cher\, and gave him the castrum in the city; Remistanius was a good one to co-opt\, as his forces had been powerful enough to attack fortified Carolingian positions; What had happened with Chunibert?
- War is not going well for Waifar.%
- Pippin returns to Aquitaine\, driving Waifer beyond the Garonne.%
- Waifar withdraws his forces from fortified places\, in recognition of Pepin’s siege successes.%
- Since he knows Pepin needs fortified places\, he orders the walls destroyed in the places he withdraws from.%
- Either seeing this\, or first they did it\, many magnates start swearing allegiance to Pepin.
- Albi\, Rouergue\, and Gévaudan conquered.%
- Pippin takes the Aquitainian capital of Toulouse. Waifer flees\, and his followers murder him\, then pledge allegiance to Pepin\, although that does not last long.
- Treaty of Fronsac – on the banks of the Garonne.%
- Duke Lupo leads Basques to submit at Fronsac.%
- Pepin issues capitulary of Aquitaine.%
- Waifar escapes Pepin.%
- June 2: Waifar killed by his own followers.%
- Pepin falls sick at Saintes.%
- Sept 24: Pepin either dies in Aquitaine or manages to make it to Paris; buried at St. Denis; Bertrada lives to 783.%
- Charles\, age 20\, and Carloman succeed Pepin; Charles gets Austrasia\, Carloman gets Burgundy\, Provence\, Septimania\, Alsace\, and Alammania; Aquitaine divided between them; Neustria also divided – Unprecedented!%
- Oct 9: simultaneous coronations: Charles at Noyons and Carloman at Soissons (both in Neustria).%
- Charles spends Christmas as Aachen.
- Last uprising of the Aquitainians\, led by Hunald II\, probably son of Waifar.%
- Hunald moves as far north as Angouleme?%
- Carloman meets with Charles\, but refuses to help put down Hunald\, and returns to Burgundy.%
- Charles goes to Angouleme and obtains support of garrison Pepin had installed ~767. Also calls up other levies of Angouleme civitas. Might not have worked\, as Angoulemers had suffered much – Charles’ first triumph as king?%
- Charles takes his army to Bordeaux\, and builds fortified camp on ‘mound’ of Fronsac.%
- Hunald sought refuge with Lupo (also Lupus II)\, duke of the Gascons\, who had loaned him Gascon troops.%
- Lupo turns him and his wife over to Charles and pledges allegiance; last of any hope of an Kingdom (or even Duchy) of Aquitaine.
- Charles gives the ‘Holy Prepuce’ to the monks of the abbey of Charroux.%
- April: son Pepin born (christened Carloman\, but had himself christened).
- Dec 4/5: Carloman\, Pepin’s son (and C’s brother) dies/deposed. Charles now sole ruler of Francia.
- First foray by Charles against the Saxons. He destroys the Irminsul.%
- Charles repudiates his Lombard wife Desiderata.
- Saxons attempt to destroy the church at Fritzlar\, in retaliation for the destruction of the Irminsul.%
- Charles invades Lombardy\, both to support pope Adrian I against the Lombard king Desiderius\, and to ensure that Carloman’s children\, who had been adopted by Desiderius\, would not cause any problems. Desiderius is overthrown and sent to a monastery in Neustria.
- Charles becomes king of Lombardy. Confirms the Donation of Pepin.%
- Charles\, on return from Pavia\, launches four-pronged attack into Saxony.
- Further Saxon campaigns.
- Wali of Barcelona\, Sulayman al-Arabi\, and the wali of Huesca\, Abu Taur\, offer their submission to Charlemagne and also the submission of Husayn\, wali of Zaragoza.
- Death of Lupo of Gascony.%
- Charlemagne invades Spain\, aka the Upper Mark.%
- Husayn refuses alliance.%
- August 15\, Roncesvalles.%
- Charles’ son Louis born.
- Charlemagne repopulates Septimania by granting fiefs to Visigothic and other refugees.
- July 12: Bertrada dies\, buried next to Pepin at St. Denis.
- Muslims sack Narbonne and kill William of Gellone\, count of Toulouse\, near Carcassone.